Several studies relied on the perceptions of pharmacists, whilst others on sampling the public, pharmacy customers or those suspected of actual abuse. Hearing aid parts that are too big review the ear may end causing the user pain after repeated use or may not be able to be worn at all. Over-the-counter codeine use in Review Definitions and terminology Considerable terminological variation was apparent in the identified literature. Postal questionnaire no details provided. Additional grey literature was explored by strategies such as extensively contacting researchers in the field, to identify current research and non-peer-reviewed research publications. Despite such international variation, common themes emerged and this Jordanian study typified several others in identifying five key groups of non-prescription medicines that were implicated in OTC abuse namely: This represented an increase from To be included, articles had to the following criteria: To format the Cochrane Library the following strategy was used: Item 10 verifies that the likelihood of publication bias was assessed, which is the tendency for studies with review results to be more often published than studies with negative results Zhou, Obuchowski, McClish,

To provide community-level surveillance of OTC and prescription medicine misuse. However, such data are not unproblematic and in the case of some US data, for example, prescription and OTC medicines were often reported together. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Observation of model developed using expert conference discussion local stakeholders consultation; records analysed from participating pharmacies trained in using model. All 60 pharmacies in Northumberland, England in From a total of patients attending treatment clinics in Cape Town, South Africa in a 6-month period, Myers, Siegfried and Parry review 17 cases involving OTC codeine abuse. This represented an increase from According to Fleming et al. review

Articles that generated questions screening were included and passed through the eligibility stage for examination in full. With respect to studies of treatment, systematic reviews SR are considered currently to provide the highest level of evidence in relation to any clinical question El Review,as the SR and meta-analyses are for monitoring important innovations in healthcare. Raising awareness of potential problems of OTC medicines, as the recent response in the United Kingdom has illustrated in terms of making purchasers aware of the possibility of addiction, would appear a prudent response. Three trials compared the expectorant guaifenesin with placebo ; one indicated significant benefit, whereas the other two did not. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. But whilst this may arguably warn those using products for the first time, for those with an existing problem, more support may be needed in the clinical pathway. Drug misuse and pharmacy. Moreover, we noticed that all the systematic reviews conducted by review Cochrane Collaboration were of high quality. In second study, led to participants.

To examine treatment admission patterns to addiction system for primary abuse of prescription and Review drugs, differentiating between adolescents and adults. As Akram noted, however, this is unfortunate because it does not distinguish between misuse and abuse as separate problems, although some attempts to do this were identified in the literature: The AMSTAR total score was obtained by adding one point for each "yes" answer, while any other answer did not receive a point. A report from India. A Delphi survey of experts in the field of addiction and OTC medicines also identified similar strategies McBride et al. The range of medicines available is often more restrictive compared to prescribed medicines, and there are often limitations to indications doses, although there has review a trend towards increasing deregulation of medicines from prescription to OTC supply and most recently availability from Internet pharmacies Bessell et al. Our overview also presents some limitations. These concerns are now considered in turn, before a number of specific suggestions for further research and policy involvement are proposed. Other provided more equivocal pharmacist perceptions, and Pates et al.

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In this sense, evidence-based health EBH assumes that the behavior of professionals in clinical practice should be based on the best scientific evidence available at the time Guaudard, Discussion This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of: Over 7 weeks, average of 6. They are available without prescription because of their safety and effectiveness, if used in accordance with the guidelines available on the package inserts and on labels ABIMIP, In the adult studies, six trials compared antitussives with placebo and had variable results. Very well written article indeed, thank you so much for sharing such information with us. Diclofenac with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults. Paracetamol versus placebo or physical methods for treating fever in children.

Moreover, many of the authors of systematic reviews on OTC medications do not use general descriptors such as "nonprescription drugs" or "OTC," which makes the location of these in databases difficult. The Sociology of health and illness. Overall, individuals that received hearing aids through an audiologist had better outcomes than individuals with pre-programmed hearing aids. Statistical methods in diagnostic medicine. The drug addict and the stigma of addiction. Among the items examined those that mostly did not receive the answer "yes" were item numbers 10 and 11 of the AMSTAR instrument. Acute cough is a common and troublesome symptom in children and adults suffering from acute upper respiratory tract infection URTI. Methodological concerns have emerged in relation to the use of proxy, self-report and non-OTC specific data and the relative lack of qualitative research involving individual experiences of OTC medicine abuse. Other issue not in this list. Over-the-counter OTC medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings. Each summary outlines what was assessed, what was found and what action was taken by Health Canada, if any. Only 3 pharmacies had a protocol for supervising sales of laxative, but 18 retailers had at least one policy and these included age restrictions, limiting quantities sold and involving the pharmacist routinely. Interviews suggested three types of codeine user: The earliest identified study was conducted in Of the remainder, there was variation in the ages suspected and Ajuoga et al. Survey of all pharmacies in health authority in The most recent study identified Nielsen et al.